El azar y la necesidad (Metatemas) | Jacques Monod | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Azar y necesidad en la filosofía de la vida de J. Monod. Ciencia y filosofía en El Azar y la ita Necesidad y Azar Parménides – Mallarmé. : El Azar Y La Necesidad (Spanish Edition) () by Jacques Monod and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible.
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The rest of the chapter is a discussion of the principles that cell metabolism works by. In the last part of the chapter the author brings up the important subject of mutations. About two minutes after adding a galactoside inducer the rate of synthesis of the three proteins increases a thousandfold.
In the monov paragraph of the preface Monod explains that his essay developed from the Robins Lectures that he gave in at Pomona College. Monod starts the preface of the book by saying that biology is both marginal and central. Next Monod makes reference to his own research and talks about the S shaped non-linear curve that is characteristic monor allosteric enzymes when activity is plotted against concentration of an effector including the substrate.
In the last part of the chapter Monod criticizes “holists” who challenge the value to analytically complex systems such as living organisms and that complex systems cannot be reduced to the sum of their parts. Three stages which led to the emergence of the first organism are proposed. He also states that necesidxd complexity of the cybernetic network in living beings is far too complex to study by the overall behavior of whole organisms.
To attain stable non-covalent interaction there is a need for complementary sites between two interacting molecules so as to permit several atoms of the one to enter into contact with several atoms of the other. The Kingdom and darkness.
He then brings up and defends against a possible thermodynamic objection to reproductive invariance and points out the extreme efficiency of the teleonomic apparatus in accomplishing the nwcesidad and reproduction of the structure.
Different cells work in different ways at different times, however. Necesisad makes the point that behavior cannot be strictly separated as learned or innate since elements are acquired through experience according to an innate program and “the programs structure initiates and guides early learning, which will follow a certain pre-established pattern defined by the species’ genetic patrimony” Monod, He explains that galactoside permease one of the proteins in the lactose system enables the galactoside sugars to penetrate and accumulate within the cell.
He implies that this genetic component accounts for religion being the base of social structure and the reoccurrence of the same essential form in myths, religion, and philosophy.
Cooperative and antagonistic interactions of ligands are indirect: The antibody that is able to bind to the antigen is multiplied. To them a being made sense and was understandable only through the purpose animating the being and so if mysterious objects, such as rocks, rivers, rain, and stars, exist it must also be for a purpose essentially there are no inanimate objects to them.
He next considers the energetic differences between covalent and non-covalent bonds and how the speed of a reaction is affected by activation energy. Prior to folding there is no biological activity. Next would have been the formation of the first macromolecules capable of replication probably through spontaneous base pairing. He brings up statistics that show a negative correlation between intelligence and the average number of children per couple and a positive correlation of intelligence between spouses which concentrates them among a shrinking elite.
The author then spends some time developing the fact that the preceding sequence of amino acids had no bearing on what the next amino acid will be. He says this “random” message seems to be composed haphazardly from a random origin and he ends the chapter poetically when he writes “Randomness caught on the wing, preserved, reproduced by the machinery of invariance and thus converted into order, rule, and necessity. Similar functions are carried out by the same sequence of reactions that appear in all organisms for essential chemical operations some variations exist that consist of new utilizations of universal metabolic sequences.
Monod points out that this animist line of thought is still present in philosophy that makes no essential distinction between matter and life and frames biological evolution as a component of cosmic evolution evolutive force operating throughout the entire universe. This nexesidad is due to the fact that the chemical potential needed to form the oligomer is present in the solution of monomers azad because the bonds formed are non-covalent.
Finally, it is the primary structure of proteins that we shall consult for the “secret” to those cognitive properties thanks to which, like Maxwell’s demons, they animate and build living systems” Monod In his view the mnod is unpredictable for the same reason that the particular configuration of atoms mmonod a pebble are unpredictable. Allosteric interactions are mediated by discrete shifts in the proteins structure and this allows certain proteins to assume different conformational states.
That mutations are unpredictable, faithfully replicated, and that natural selection operates only upon the products of chance is repeated at the start of chapter seven entitled “Evolution”.
Allosteric enzymes are usually under the simultaneous control of several allosteric effectors. The author points to what he sees as the acceptance of objective science in practice but not in spirit. In Jacob and Monod proposed the existence of a messenger ribonucleic acid mRNAa substance whose base sequence is complementary to that of azat acid DNA in the cell.
The author points out that non-covalent interactions attain stability only through numerous interactions and when applied over short distances. Feedback activation is when the enzyme is activated by a product of degradation of the terminal metabolite. Monod first gives an example of dissecting a computer and then points out how teleonomic performances can be seen on a molecular level.
The author then says that due to the accelerating pace of cultural evolution, it no longer affects the genome and that selection does not favor the genetic survival of the fittest through a more numerous progeny. El azar y la necesidad. He offers the selective theory as being consistent with the postulate of objectivity and allowing for epistemological coherence.
Monod writes that an enzymatic reaction can be seen in two steps: He continues to explain how this important discovery has made it the duty of scientists to share with and enhance other disciplines of thought such as philosophy. At the start of chapter five “Molecular Ontogenesis” Monod states he will show that the process aar spontaneous autonomous morphogenesis depends upon “the sterospecific recognition properties of proteins; that it is primarily a microscopic process before manifesting itself in macroscopic structures.
First there must have been the formation of nucleotides and amino acids from simple carbon compounds and non-biological catalysts. The accidental random chance of these mutations and that these unpredictable mutations alone that are the source of evolution is pointed out and exemplified.
The biochemical processes that necesidqd place within an organism’s cells are controlled by the genes found inside DNA molecules. And lastly the evolution of a teleonomic apparatus around the “replicative structures” would lead to the primitive cell. At the end of this chapter Monod states that the thesis he “shall present in this book is that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or of events but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with first principles, but not deducible from those principles and therefore essentially minod Monod, The sequence of nucleotides in DNA defines the sequence of amino acids which in turn defines the folding of proteins which in turn defines an organism; “One must regard the total organism as the ultimate epigenetic expression of the genetic message itself” Monod,