Cataphora and anaphora are the two main types of endophora–that is, reference to an item within the text itself. Anaphora cataphora, endophora. Cohesive ties – typology. Reading: Dušková, L. Studies in the English Language. Part 2. Praha: Karolinum, Chapter Anaphora and Cataphora. LG. Loreto Garrido. Updated 10 November Transcript. This is what Fabian said. That all men were created equally.

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After squaring both sides, we arrive at the following: In complement anaphora cases, however, the anaphor refers to something that is not yet present in the discourse, since the pronoun’s referent has not been formerly introduced, including the case of ‘everything but’ what has been introduced. The term anaphor is used in a special way in the generative grammar tradition of Chomsky and his snaphora.

That sentence is just awful.

Anaphora (linguistics)

Because she studied really hard, Nancy aced her test. Cataphorz is what I believe: A proform is a cataphorz when it points to its right toward its postcedent. Lectures on government and binding: Journal of Semantics 11, — Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically: Non-strict cataphora of this sort can occur in many contexts, for example: Anaphora Resolution and Text Retrieval.


So, for example, the pronouns in the following sentences are anaphors: In some cases, anaphora may refer not to its usual antecedent, but to its complement set.

Strict cross-sentence cataphora where the antecedent is an entire sentence is fairly common cross-linguistically:. If you want somehere’s some parmesan cheese.

In the sentence Before her arrival, nobody saw Sallythe pronoun her refers forward to the postcedent Sallyso her is now a cataphor and an anaphor in the broader, but not the narrower, sense. Cataphora of this sort is particularly common in formal contexts, using an anaphoric expression such as this or the following:. Corpus linguistics at work. Quantification et anaphore discursive: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

In the following example a, the anaphoric pronoun they refers to the children who are eating the ice-cream.

Complement anaphora and dynamic binding. The examples of cataphora described so far are strict cataphora, because the anaphor is an actual pronoun. The Case of The Others”. In a narrower sense, anaphora is the use of an expression that depends specifically upon an antecedent expression and thus is contrasted with cataphorawhich is the use of an expression that depends upon a postcedent expression.


A listener might, for example, realize through listening to other catapohra and sentences that catzphora is a Queen because of some of her attributes or actions mentioned. Usually, an anaphoric expression is a proform or some other kind of deictic contextually-dependent expression.

Cataphora – Wikipedia

He ‘s really stupid. So check this out: John studied really hard for his test.

And then you have 3. Both effects together are called either anaphora broad sense or less ambiguously, along with self-reference they comprise the category of endophora. He ‘s my boyfriend Nick. Same as previous sentence, in German.

Taking the computational theory of mind view of language, centering theory gives a computational analysis of underlying antecedents. The anaphor the right gadget co-refers with a digital camera. There are many theories that attempt to prove how anaphors are related and trace back to their antecedents, with centering theory Grosz, Joshi, and Weinstein being one of them.