Operation & Maintenance of Ordnance in Cold Weather FM 9 FM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE OF ORDNANCE MATERIEL IN COLD WEATHER. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD FROM USAPA. Recently. Technical Manual TM (FM ) Operations and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Cold Weather July [United States Government US Army].
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There is an increased need for ammunition in cold weather. Antifreeze materials specified for protection of liquid-cooling systems are listed in Appendix A.
This prevents the parts from becoming lost in the snow Figure Fuel carbonizes if the combustion chambers do not get hot enough. A fully charged 99-207 does not freeze in extreme cold climates, but a battery with specific gravity 1. Unit standard operating procedures SOPs and training plans should address the following:. If troops stationed 9-027 temperate climates are to be expected to move to cold climates and perform their missions, they must be prepared for it.
Tarps used to protect from cold and to catch dropped parts. Tires become rigid in cold, causing flat spots on parts that come in contact with the ground during shutdown.
Soldiers must maintain equipment in the 9-20 mechanical condition to withstand the added difficulties and prevent failures during sub-zero operations. Exercise care when towing cold-soaked vehicles. This FM does not replace applicable technical manuals TMs for specific equipment operations, servicing, or repair.
See Figure for sample auxiliary power receptacles. However, cracking may result if heat is applied directly to cold windshields or other vehicle glass. At a minimum, a highly organized, more intensive effort is required of mechanics. However, soldiers and their leaders must understand the effects of cold weather and adapt operations and maintenance to overcome environmental conditions. The proper antifreeze materials are critical for cold operations. All units, especially mechanized and motorized, will require more time to accomplish tasks; cold will increase fuel consumption and the demand for lead acid and dry cell batteries.
Flank units must work harder to keep up with the tm body and require frequent rotation. As a result, logistical planning must be continuous and aggressive, making use of all modes of transportation.
It is essential to keep batteries fully charged. When authorized, stationary engagement of hydromechanical transmissions can be used to facilitate engine warming.
Enter Your Email Address. Climatic Conditions Weapons Functioning. These heaters are 9-2077, pot-type burners. The impact of cold 9-07 on combat forces can readily be seen during decisive campaigns in history. Neoprene jackets on cables become brittle and break readily at low temperatures. Saturation reduces the insulating value of the handwear, causing cold injuries. Even the most routine operations, such as handling latches or opening engine compartments, become frustrating and time-consuming when performed with protected hands.
The storage battery’s available energy decreases sharply when temperatures fall. If vehicles come into theater with temperate grade automatic transmission fluids and become cold-soaked when vehicle temperatures drop as low as the existing ambient temperaturesseals are likely to blow when transmissions are engaged. Also, personnel have a tendency to operate close to vehicles, which is tactically unwise. If possible, tents should have wood flooring and be heated by portable duct heaters or tent stoves.
The preferred cold weather batteries are lithium-based, but precautions must be taken in their storage and disposal.
This accelerates heater failure by carbonizing the wick, igniter, burner, related burner components, or heat exchanger. Host nation HN personnel are critical to identifying sources of food, shelter, warmth, supplies, and services. This blockage also can lead to premature igniter failure due to excessive start attempts. It is intended to provide an overview of the special and unique difficulties encountered in cold weather operations.
In constant cold weather, storage batteries should be tested for state of charge every three days. Without some type of permanent or temporary shelter, even routine maintenance can become extremely difficult.
Because of the harsh conditions, it is also more difficult to prepare ammunition storage areas. The standby system includes an engine coolant heater, hoses, control valves, fuel pump, battery heat exchanger commonly known as a battery padand miscellaneous hardware. If cables are to be bent, they must first be warmed. Parachutes can also make temporary shelters.
A potential increase in medical problems i. Hydraulic fluids specified for hydraulic systems, recoil mechanisms, and equilibrates are listed in Appendix A. These fuels are listed in Appendix A. Consult these catalogs when requisitioning. Since most US units are stationed in temperate or tropical climates, soldiers generally lack adequate training or experience in cold weather operations and maintenance. This safety factor is essential to prevent damage to the winch.
As stated in Field Manual FMThe Armyit is the Army’s fundamental purpose to win wars through land force dominance regardless of location or climate. Climatic Conditions Functioning Difficulties. Even shop maintenance cannot be completed at normal speed. Although equipment 9-2077 designed to function in the cold, it will be less reliable, thereby increasing maintenance, time, and supply problems.