This article will discuss the contribution of Halford John Mackinder, one of the earliest and most influential of the contributors to the discussion. Around the young geographer, Halford J. Mackinder, grew concerned with the changing balance of international power. He argued that. This largely outdated view influenced some geopolitical thinking. Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in.

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As Mackinder himself put it, “a platform has been given to mxckinder geographer”. Mackinder’s theories might have faded into irrelevance were it not for their apparent influence on the foreign policy of Nazi Germany.

The classic example of this advantage was the Crimean War, in which Russia could not project power to the south as effectively as the sea-supplied French and British, despite the fact that the battlefields were far closer to Moscow than to London.

From Geopoliticcs, the free encyclopedia. The three overlap in Central Asia, which is the only region where the Cold War tradition of “triangular diplomacy” may well become a reality again if geopolitical concerns dominate our strategy.

Help us improve this article! Clover argues that the modern Russian geopolitik is being used as the glue to form bonds between the ultra-left and ultra-right, hinting at a “red-brown” coalition that could become dominant in Russian politics in the years ahead, with ominous implications for international stability.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

If the leaders of the most powerful nation on earth were to conceptualize foreign policy as a chess game, it would virtually ensure that other nations would as well. Mackinder clearly did not anticipate, and Gray does not take into account, macklnder implications of bombers that can take off from Missouri, drop their bombload on Kosovo, and land back in Missouri.

The development of academic geography in the United Kingdom. He played a prominent part in ensuring that the university centre was established at Bloomsbury in the heart of London and not on the periphery of the metropolis. The West clumsily heightens mackunder sense of insecurity with every new foray into the Rimlands. The theories of Mackinder and the geopoliticians still linger, affecting the ways maciinder our policy is made, despite the fact that the foundations upon which those theories are built are intellectually shaky at best.


His Machiavellian approach was infamously devoid of ideology or “sentimentality”and as such caused the term geopolitics to fall out of favor with many makcinder the foreign policy practitioners who followed.

In the House, Mackinder did not make a strong impact.

In Mackinder went as British high commissioner to southern Russia in an attempt to unify the White Russian forces and was knighted on his return in Internet URLs are the best. Geopolitics in United States Strategic Policy, mackinddr While Mackinder’s warnings of the advantages inherent in central positioning on the Eurasian landmass certainly became incorporated into Cold War American strategic geopolitjcs and policy, some observers seem to believe that the principle architects of US foreign policy throughout the Cold War era must have been carrying Mackinder in their briefcases.

Views Read Edit View history. But the gfopolitics that there was a secret master plan at work in Berlin created a whole new interest in geopolitics and what Mackinder and geopolitics had to say. When has central positioning ever been advantageous to any nation? Today the United States is at a unipolar position in geopolittics possible sense–militarily, economically, culturally, politically, and on and on.

Geographical Journal, 23, pp. Fettweis is a Ph.

Views Read Edit View history. One might expect that geopolitics would have faded into the intellectual background with the end of the Cold War and the defeat of halfogd Heartland power.

Halford Mackinder

Director of the London School of Economics — In order to do so it is necessary to jettison antiquated and baseless concepts like geopolitics once and for all. Weigert, Geeopolitics and Geopolitics Oxford, Eng.: Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas. This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries.


Mackinder’s Heartland was the area then ruled by the Russian Empire and after that by the Soviet Unionminus the Kamchatka Peninsula region, which is located in the easternmost part of Russia, near the Aleutian Islands and Kurile islands.

Halford Mackinder – Wikipedia

The rules that govern international relations evolve. This gap in the natural defenses led to the famous conclusion that whoever ruled Eastern Europe would be in an advantageous position to rule the Heartland, and therefore the World Island, and therefore the world.

See, in addition to those works already cited, reviews of the current literature in Colin S. The actual effect of his teachings upon German policy is open to debate–Haushofer may have had an enormous effect on Hitler through his pupil,[9] or he may have been “a neglected and slighted man who would certainly enjoy learning about the hullabaloo raised by his doctrine” in the United States.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mackinder’s work paved the way for the establishment of geography as a distinct discipline in the United Kingdom.

Brzezinski has made Eurasia the focus for US foreign policy in all of his writing, consistently warning of the dangerous advantages that the Heartland power had over the West. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. Before we decide on the nature of our policy toward the region, we must examine some of the assumptions that we bring into the debate. His next major work, Democratic Ideals and Reality: Mackinder himself became a full professor in Geography in the University of London London School of Economics in Mackinder was the son of a physician of Scottish descent.