Key Points. The Kanem Empire (c. –) at its height encompassed an area covering much of Chad, parts of southern Libya (Fezzan) and eastern Niger. The Kanem-Bornu Empire was a large African state which existed from the 9th century through the end of the 19th century and which spanned a region which. The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an African trading empire ruled by the Saf dynasty from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries. It encompassed, at.

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North African traders, Berbers and Arabsbrought the new religion. His innovations included the employment of fixed military camps with walls ; brnu sieges and ” scorched earth ” tacticswhere soldiers burned everything in their path; armored horses and riders; and the use of Berber camelry, Kotoko boatmen, and iron-helmeted musketeers trained by Turkish military advisers.

Part of a series on the. It is misleading to believe that […] Like Like. He is credited with having the roads cleared, designing better boats for Lake Chad, introducing standard units of measure for grain, and moving farmers into new lands.

He required major political figures to live at the court, and he reinforced political alliances through appropriate marriages Aluma himself was the son of a Kanuri father and a Bulala mother. Some older histories connect the creation of Kanem-Bornu with exodus from the collapsed Assyrian Empire c.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few bronu in mind. Because of its location, it served as a point of contact in trade between North Africathe Nile Valley, and the sub-Sahara region.

Kanem’s expansion peaked during the long and energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi ca. As with other dynamic politicians, Aluma’s reformist botnu led him to seek loyal and competent advisers and allies, and he frequently relied on slaves who had been educated in noble homes.

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This article will briefly talk about the origin of the empire, its influence then and now. The Kanem-Borno Empire was also faced with administrative disorganization and other internal conflicts. The Zaghawa adopted some of the Sao customs, but fight among the two lasted from the 7th century until the 16th.

Empite origin of the Kanem remains unclear. Aluma is remembered for his military skills, administrative reforms, and Islamic piety. Herders and farmers alike recognized the government’s power and acknowledged their allegiance by paying tribute. He fostered diplomatic relations with Tripoli, Egyptand the Ottoman Empirewhich sent a member ambassadorial party across the desert to Aluma’s court at Ngazargamu. By the early 16 th century, the Sayfawa Dynasty was able to defeat the Bulala group and reclaim its former capital n Njimi.

During the first three-quarters of the 15th century, for example, fifteen mais occupied the throne. Dabbalemi was able to suppress this tendency, but after his death, dissension among his sons weakened the Sayfawa Dynasty. As a base for the resistance he eventually built a capital at Kukawa in located in present-day Nigeria.

In the late 14th century the Saifawa were forced to retreat west across Lake Chad and establish a new kingdom called Bornu. Dynastic feuds degenerated into civil warand Kanem’s outlying peoples soon ceased paying tribute.

They suffered other invasion from militants from the East. Map of the Kanem and Kanem-Bornu empires.

Charles Brooks on February 26, at Dear Diana, I totally agree with you. Empire of Kanem-Bornu c. Flag of Bornu, also known as Organa, from Vallseca atlas of Despite changes in dynastic power, the magumi and the title of mai would persevere for over a thousand years. Dabbalemi devised a system to reward military commanders with authority over the people they emoire.

Most of the successors of Idris Alooma are only known from the meagre information provided by the Diwan. Under the leadership of the Duguwa dynastythe Kanembu would eventually dominate the Sao, but not before adopting many of their customs. The decline continued under Umar’s sons. In knem projects Wikimedia Commons. The Sayfawa ruled until the 19 th century. The Sayfawa Dynasty became more powerful than before with the control of both capitals, the capitals were consolidated but political and economic authority was in Bornu.


The empire was founded by the Zaghawa nomadic people, who may have been the first in the central Sudan to acquire and make use of iron technology and horses.

Even though the Kanembu became the main kanej of the Sayfuwa, Kanem’s rulers continued to travel frequently throughout the kingdom and especially towards Bornu, west of lake Chad. The Bornu Empire was a continuation of the Kanem Empire. This is the origin of the name Kanem-Bornu. Kanem was a Muslim scholar and non-Sayfawa warlord who had put together an alliance of Shuwa ArabsKanembuand other semi nomadic peoples.

Kanem–Bornu Empire – Wikipedia

One noticeable culture of the Kanuri people that still holds in Nigeria is the Durbar festival. Dabbalemi initiated diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa and apparently kanek for the establishment of a special hostel in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca. Some of his military kanme were the use of fixed military camps with protective walls, armored horses, boatmen and iron-helmeted musketeers trained by Turkish military.

He also developed diplomatic relationships with Tripoli, Egypt and the Ottoman Empire.

The Kanem-Bornu Empire

To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats. Its territory at various times included what is now southern Chadnorthern Cameroonnortheastern Nigeriaeastern Nigerand southern Libya. Kanem-Bornu court in the s. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Dabbalemi made attempts to suppress this tendency, but after his death, dissension among his sons weakened the political authority of the Sayfawa Dynasty.