This section explains how to typeset vocal music, and make sure that the lyrics will be aligned with the notes of their melody. \musicglyph glyph-name (string). glyph-name is converted to a musical symbol; for example, \musicglyph #”l” selects the natural sign from the. If these automatic decisions are not satisfactory, beaming can be entered explicitly; see Manual beams. Beams must be entered manually if beams are to be.

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A beamExceptions value must be complete exceptions list.

LilyPond — Notation Reference

This behavior can be modified to subdivide the beams into sub-groups by setting the property subdivideBeams. Line breaks are normally forbidden when beams cross bar lines. If the placement of the notes and the sound in the MIDI output is to reflect the ritardando or accelerando indicated by the feathered beam the notes must be grouped as a music expression delimited by braces and preceded by a featherDurations command which specifies the ratio between the durations of the first and last notes in the group.

Note that baseMoment defaults to one over the denominator of the current time signature if not set explicitly.

The default values of these variables may be overridden as described below, or alternatively the default values refwrence may be changed as explained in Time signature. Even more strict manual control with the beams can be achieved by setting the properties stemLeftBeamCount and stemRightBeamCount.

LilyPond Notation Reference: Overview of modifying properties

Changing the default automatic beaming settings for a time signature is described in Time signature. Beaming-rules is a scheme alist or list of pairs that indicates the beam type and the grouping to be applied to beams containing notes with a shortest duration of that beam type. This behavior can be changed as shown:. When set, multiple beams will be subdivided at intervals defined by the current value of baseMoment by reducing the multiple beams to just one beam between the sub-groups.


For right-pointing nibs at the end of a run of beamed notes, set stemRightBeamCount to a positive value.

The workaround for these problems is to manually beam the last beam in the voice or score. The beamExceptions rules are disabled by. By default, each unit of length baseMoment is a single beat. Grace note beams and normal note beams can occur simultaneously. Notation manual tables A. The spacing in the ljlypond output represents the note durations only approximately, but the MIDI output is exact.

Feathered beams are used to indicate that a small group of notes should be played at an increasing or decreasing tempo, without changing the overall tempo of the piece. If a polyphonic voice ends while an automatic beam is still accepting notes, it is not typeset.

Beamlets can be set to point in the direction of the beat to which they belong. By default, baseMoment is one over the denominator of the time signature. In the rules above, the beam-type is the duration of the shortest note in the beamed group.

1. Musical notation

Beam setting changes can be limited to specific contexts. If a score ends while an automatic beam has not been ended and is still accepting notes, this last beam will not be typeset at all. For example, the autobeamer will not put beams over rests or bar lines, and in choral scores the beaming is often set to follow the meter of the lyrics rather than the notes.


If no setting is included in a lower-level context, the setting of the enclosing context will apply. Special autobeaming rules other than ending a beam on a beat are defined in the beamExceptions property. When multiple voices are used the Staff context must be specified if the beaming is to be applied to all voices in the staff:. By default, beamExceptions rules are defined for most common time signatures, so the beamExceptions rules must be disabled if automatic beaming is to be based on baseMoment and beatStructure.

In this example, the last f is printed with only one beam on the left side, i. The beamExceptions rule can override the beatStructure setting if beamExceptions is not reset.

Manual beamsSetting automatic beam behavior. General input and output 3. Beaming patterns that differ from the automatic defaults can be created; see Setting automatic beam behavior. When automatic beaming is enabled, the placement of automatic beams is determined by the context properties baseMomentbeatStructureand beamExceptions.

Beam-ending rules specified in the Score context apply to all staves, but can be modified at both Staff and Voice levels:. Direction and placementGrace notes.

It is not possible to add, remove, or change only one of the exceptions. LilyPond command index E. Unbeamed grace notes are not put into normal note beams.

Setting the time signature will reset the automatic beaming settings for the Timing context to the default behavior. This behavior can be tuned through the auto-knee-gap property.